A metallic element highly resistant to corrosion, used as a protective plating on certain steel parts and fittings.
A third electrode, used for separate measurements of the electrode potential of positive and negative plate groups.
Calcium Lead Alloy
A lead base alloy that in certain applications can be used for battery parts in place of antimonial lead alloys. Most common use is in stationary cells.
Finely divided carbon, obtained by burning a gaseous hydrocarbon under controlled conditions, which is used as an ingredient in negative expanders.
Carbon Burning Outfit
A metallic rod and insulated handle, mounting a pointed carbon rod; used for lead burning on service locations where the usual gas flame equipment is not available.
A large cylindrical container or bottle made of plastic or glass used to ship acid.
To form a molten substance into a definite shape by pouring or forcing the liquid material into a mold and allowing it to solidify (freeze).
A metallic item, such as one or more grids, straps or connectors, which is produced by pouring or forcing molten metal into a mold and allowing it to solidify.
A storage (secondary) cell is an electrolytic cell due to the generation of electric energy, in which the cell, after being discharged, may be restored to a charged condition by an electric current flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when the cell discharges.
The condition of a storage cell when at its maximum ability to deliver current. The positive plate contains a maximum of lead peroxide and a minimum of sponge lead and sulfate and the electrolyte will be at maximum specific gravity.
Charged and Dry
A battery assembled with dry, charged plates and no electrolyte.
Charged and Wet
A fully charged battery containing electrolyte and is ready to deliver current.
The process of converting electrical energy to stored chemical energy. In the lead‐acid system, charging converts the lead sulfate in the plates to lead peroxide or lead.
The male half of a quick connector which contains both the positive and negative leads.
The current expressed in amperes at which the battery is charged.
The female half of a quick connector housing both positive and negative leads.
A system of electrical components through which an electrical current is intended to flow. The continuous path of an electric current.
A circuit that provides more than one path for the flow of current. A parallel arrangement of batteries (usually of like voltages and capacities) has all positive terminals connected to a conductor and all negative terminals connected to another conductor. If two 12-volt batteries of 50 ampere-hour capacity each are connected in parallel, the circuit voltage is 12 volts, and the ampere-hour capacity of the combination is 100 ampere-hours.
A circuit that has only one path for the flow of current. Batteries arranged in series are connected with negative of the first to positive of the second, negative of the second to positive of the third, etc. If two 12-volt batteries of 50 ampere-hours capacity each are connected in series, the circuit voltage is equal to the sum of the two battery voltages, or 24 volts, and the ampere-hour capacity of the combination is 50 ampere-hours.
Cold Crank Rating
The cold crank rating refers to number of amperes a lead-acid battery at 0°F (-17.8°C) can deliver for 30 seconds and while maintaining at least 7.2 volts (1.2 volts per cell). This is commonly referred to as CCA (Cold Cranking Amps).
An asphaltic, pitch like material used as a cover‐to‐jar sealant.
The ability to transmit current in a circuit or battery.
Constant Voltage Charge
A constant‐voltage charge of a storage battery is a charge in which the voltage at the terminals of the battery is held at a constant value.
A charge in which the current is maintained at a constant value. (For some types of lead-acid batteries this may involve two rates called a starting and a finishing rate.)
The housing for one or more cells, commonly called a “Jar”.
The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties. The positive lead grids in a battery gradually corrode in service often leading to battery failure. Battery terminals are subject to corrosion if they are not properly maintained.
The lid or cover of an enclosed cell generally made of the same material as the jar or container and through which extend the posts and the vent plug.
Lead or lead alloy rings, which are molded or sealed into the cell cover and to which the element posts are burned thereby creating an effective acid‐creep resistant seal.
The travel of electrolyte up the surface of electrodes or other parts of the cell above the level of the main body of electrolyte.
The chemical conversion process which changes lead oxides and sulfuric acid to mixtures of tetrabasic lead sulfate, other basic lead sulfates, basic lead carbonates, etc., which consequently will form desired structures of Pb or PbO² on negative or positive plates during formation.
The time rate of the flow of electricity, normally expressed as amperes, like the flow of a stream of water.
Cutting (of acid)
The dilution of a more concentrated solution of sulfuric acid to a lower concentration.
A discharge and its subsequent recharge.
A type of battery operation in which a battery is consciously subjected to successive cycles of charge and discharge, e.g. motive power service.